Any illness occurring when one of the body's own cells starts growing out of control. The name comes from ancient Greek and it means "crab". The Greeks thought that clusters of cancer cells looked like the legs of a crab!
A product of combustion of organic matter with insufficient oxygen supply. Carbon monoxide is a significantly toxic gas, colorless, odorless, tasteless, and non-irritating.
Catalysis is the change in rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of a substance called a catalyst.
The structural, functional and biological unit of all organisms.
A selectively permeable biological membrane that encloses the cell and maintains differences between the cell contents and the outside environment.
Force by which atoms or ions are bound in a molecule or crystal.
The branch of physics that studies chemical processes from the point of view of physics.
Any of a material's properties that becomes evident during a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity.
Any chemical process in which substances are changed into different ones, with different properties, as distinct from changing position or form. Energy is released or is absorbed, but no loss in total molecular weight occurs in going from reactants to products.
Branch of science concerned with the properties, composition, and structure of substances (molecules) and the changes they undergo when they combine or react under specified conditions.
A characteristic of any object which cannot be superimposed upon its reflection. Chirality is used to denote the existence of left/right opposition between objects.
Part of a molecule responsible for its colour.
A macro-molecule made of deoxyribonucleic acid (or DNA), which contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and some viruses. A normal human body has 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 total chromosomes).
A condition caused by two waves whose electric field components are 90 degrees out of phase, causing an effective rotation of the electric field about an axis in direction of propagation.
The most abundant protein in the body and one of the main constituents of skin, bones, tendons, cartilage, and ligaments. It forms fibres that bind together and strengthen these tissues.
Relating to quantitative chemical analysis by color.
The conversion efficiency of a solar cell is the proportion of sunlight energy that the cell converts to electrical energy.
A solid having, in all three dimensions of space, a regular repeating internal unit of structure.
The arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules in a crystal.
A family of compounds made up of sugar molecules bound together in a ring.
Cytocine (symbol C) is one of the constituent bases of DNA and RNA, which pairs with guanine.